• Causes of Painful Urination
    Chronic Pain Treatment

    Causes of Painful Urination

    Dysuria, or pain during urination, is a catchall name for a variety of symptoms related to urination accompanied by chronic pain. The bladder, urethra, or perineum could be the source of the discomfort. Urine exits the body through a channel called the urethra.

    The perineum refers to the area between the penis and the anus in humans. The perineum is the skin that lines the vagina between the anus and the vaginal opening.

    Chronic urethral pain is extremely common. Multiple medical diseases can cause pain, burning, or stinging. and there are proven strategies for people that chronic pain affect.

    Why Would Urinating Hurt?

    Bladder and Kidney Infections

    A urinary tract infection is often characterized by painful urination (UTI). Bacterial infection is a possible cause of a UTI. Urinary tract infection and inflammation are also possible causes.

    Your urinary system consists of your urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. It is the ureters’ job to transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Urethral, prostate, or kidney inflammation can all contribute to uncomfortable urination.

    It’s more common for persons with a vagina to get UTIs than it is for those with a penis. This is because those who have a vagina typically have a shorter urethra. Bacteria can reach the bladder more quickly if the urethra is shorter.

    In addition to women, people going through pregnancy or menopause are also more likely to get a urinary tract infection.

    Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

    If you have a sexually transmitted infection, you may also have pain when peeing (STI). Genital herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are some STIs that can lead to painful urination.

    Due to the fact that some STIs do not produce noticeable symptoms, it is crucial to get tested for them. There is a need for widespread STI testing among sexually active individuals.


    However, there are a variety of other medical issues that might make urinating uncomfortable. Prostatitis causes discomfort during urinating in people who have a prostate. The prostate gland has been inflamed and thus this ailment exists. It’s a common source of urinary irritation and burning.


    Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder lining, is another potential cause of painful urination. One of the names for interstitial cystitis (IC) is painful bladder syndrome. Typical cystitis is extremely common. Signs of IC include pelvic and bladder pain and soreness.

    Bladder and urinary pain have been reported in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Radiation cystitis is the medical term for this problem.


    When the urethra becomes inflamed, a condition called urethritis occurs. Urethritis is characterized by urinary discomfort and an increased need to pee.


    If you have a penis and are experiencing painful urination, you may be suffering from epididymitis, an inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis, which sits behind the testicles, is responsible for the transportation and storage of sperm.

    Pelvis Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    The cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes can all be impacted by PID. Its symptoms include, but are not limited to, abdominal discomfort, sex pain, and urination pain.

    PID is a life-threatening condition that begins with a bacterial vaginal infection and spreads to the ovaries and uterus.

    Debilitating Uropathy caused by Obstruction

    Urine reflux into the kidneys is a symptom of obstructive uropathy, which can be caused by a blockage in the ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. Although there may be many potential causes, it is critical to get medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms.

    Similar problems with urination and pain can be brought on by urethral stricture, in which the urethra becomes abnormally narrowed.

    Urinary Calculi

    If you suffer from kidney stones, you may experience discomfort when attempting to urinate. Stones in the kidneys are solid masses that form in the urine system.


    A painful urination is a side effect of various drugs, including cancer treatments and some antibiotics. If you’re experiencing negative reactions to any medications you’re taking, be sure to tell your doctor.

    Personal Care Items

    Infection isn’t always the cause of painful urination. Products used in the vaginal area have also been linked to this condition. Vaginal tissues are especially vulnerable to irritation from soaps, lotions, and bubble baths.

    In addition to causing irritation and painful urination, dyes included in laundry detergents and other toiletry products can be a source of discomfort.

    Causes of Painful Urination

    Managing Chronic Pain During Urination

    The initial stage in pain treatment will be to identify the source of the discomfort. Urinary discomfort can be treated with medicines prescribed by your doctor. UTIs, bacterial infections, and certain STIs can all be treated with antibiotics. Medications to soothe an inflamed bladder may be prescribed by your doctor.

    In most cases, the pain associated with urinating due to a bacterial infection subsides soon after treatment begins. You should always follow your doctor’s instructions when taking medication.

    Infections like interstitial cystitis can cause severe pain that can be difficult to manage. Drug treatments could take longer to show results. Up to four months of drug use may be required before you begin to feel better.

    You can find some relief from your symptoms by making certain adjustments to your way of life. To lessen the possibility of irritation, you should avoid using scented cleaning products and personal care items.

    When engaging in sexual activity, it is recommended that you use a condom or another reliable barrier device. The bladder can be irritated by certain meals and drinks, so it’s best to avoid them (such as highly acidic foods, caffeine, and alcohol).

    Keep your fluid intake up.

    When to Visit the Doctor to Relieve Pain

    Get in touch with your local health care provider:

    • If you’re pregnant and experiencing severe, prolonged pain, you may also be running a temperature.
    • if you have pain passing a bladder or kidney stone if your urine has a strange odor, blood, or is hazy if the pain is accompanied by stomach distress
    • The source of the discomfort can be determined by answering questions and submitting lab work requested by your doctor.


    For more information on chronic pain management, pain disorders, chronic pain resources, psychogenic pain, effective chronic pain treatment options or other physical therapy, you should book a consultation session with a specialist at Chronic Therapy today, to give you professional advice that will suit your personal experience.

    Also, for people with chronic pain who are constantly worried on how to treat chronic pain or get their chronic pain treated, our specialist at Chronic Therapy have made huge success over the year in recommending reliable resources to manage chronic pain from nerve pain or any other developing chronic pain conditions.

  • Terpenes in Medical Marijuana: An Overview
    Medical Cannabis Doctor

    Terpenes in Medical Marijuana: An Overview

    THC and CBD are the two cannabinoids most often brought up in discussions of medical cannabis plant. The Therapeutic Products Administration of Australia recognises only cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an API for medical marijuana (TGA). Despite the TGA’s view, more and more medical professionals are acknowledging the use of terpenes in cannabis treatment.

    What are the benefits of terpenes? Patients typically want “Cannabis sativa” when they want something energising to help them feel less drowsy and more capable of dealing with discomfort all day long. Most individuals believe that knowing whether or not a medication is Sativa or Indica will influence how the treatment will feel (the mood of the drug), but in reality, it is the terpenes that make all the difference.

    The more you learn about terpenes, the more you could wonder if a non-isolate product is consistent from batch to batch if the terpene profile is different (or measured).

    In this post, you will get an understanding of terpenes sufficient to begin considering terpene profiles when selecting a medical cannabis product. The second part of this series will include more general information regarding terpenes, including their uses, dosages, and effects. Our terpene chart also includes vaporisation temperatures for each terpene.

    What are Terpenes?

    Terpenes are the molecules of aromatic hydrocarbons that give different plants their distinctive aromas. Terpenes may be present in cannabis at relatively high concentrations. Leaves, flowers, fruit, and sap are all ways in which plants communicate their messages. Protecting plants against predators and environmental changes, as well as attracting pollinators, is the task of terpenes.

    Terpenes are responsible for the perfume and scent of plants like cannabis, among other functions in the plant.

    Rose is not an isolated aroma. Terpenes such as citronellol, geraniol, linalool, farnesol, a-pinene, b-pinene, limonene, camphene, b-caryophyllene, and others are all part of this blend. Equally true of cannabis strains.

    Terpenes are not only responsible for giving plants their distinctive aromas, but are also thought to be the “effect-drivers” of cannabis. Therefore, the terpene profile of a plant is more relevant than the plant’s Indica or Sativa status.

    Where Can You Find Terpenes?

    Terpenes occur naturally and in great quantity. Somewhere between 200 and 20,000 unique terpenes have been found, with just a small fraction expressed in the cannabis plant. Terpenes may be found in all plants and, unexpectedly, are produced by a small number of mammals. The same terpenes that give cannabis its distinctive aroma and flavour can be found in a wide variety of other plants and spices.

    Terpenes found in cannabis are not unique. In the same way that a pinch of lavender on your pillow, a sunny afternoon at the florist, a breath of pine forest air, or the aroma of lemon in cleaning products all give you an idea of what terpenes in cannabis are like, these experiences all give you a sense of what it’s like to smoke the herb.

    Which Type of Cannabis Products Include Terpenes?

    Terpene-based cannabis catalyzers

    Terpenes are present in certain cannabis products, but unfortunately not all. However, not all manufacturers keep track of terpene concentrations in their batches, even when they sell items with terpenes.

    Knowing the various product categories might help you identify those that contain terpenes. The three most common forms of cannabidiol delivery are:

    •         Full-spectrum

    •         Isolates

    •         Broad-spectrum

    Terpsolates, which have been trending internationally for a while and have just lately made their way Down Under, are another option.

    Terpenes are included in full spectrum products.

    Pure, full-spectrum extracts have all the beneficial properties of the plant they were made from, including the terpenes. Fats, waxes, and other fibrous elements are stripped away in the production of full-spectrum, making it distinct from the whole plant.

    Certificates of Analysis should always indicate terpene content since the terpene concentration of an extract is often dramatically reduced throughout the extraction process.

    It’s also worth noting that several manufacturers use terpene mixtures into their final products. The presence of the plant’s natural terpenes is a prerequisite for labelling a product as full-spectrum.

    All-Purpose Formulations – Often Include Terpenes

    In essence, broad-spectrum cannabis products are just full-spectrum ones with some of the less desirable components eliminated. As a rule, THC is the component that is being taken out. Unfortunately, the absence of narrow-specificity in broad-spectrum suggests that something was taken out.

    Isolates Don’t Contain Terpenes

    In contrast to extracts, which often include many compounds, isolates contain just one. Among these, you may find THC and CBD isolates. There are no terpenes or other cannabinoids in these products. There is a common misconception that these products are not as effective as a full spectrum option.

    Terpene-Containing Isothiocyanates 

    To clarify, Terpsolates are just isolates that have had a terpene or terpene mix added to them. There aren’t any authentic terpenes left in the plant, therefore they have to be reintroduced back in. This is a novel concept, however there are already items on the market that fit this description in Australia.

    The Effects of Terpenes on The Human Body.

    Terpenes, like other cannabinoid compounds, affect several bodily systems. To varying degrees, terpenes can act on the following receptors. Receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid, adenosine, serotonin, PPAR-y, and cannabidiol

    Although present in medicinal cannabis at relatively modest quantities, their bioactivity is greatly enhanced by the inhalation method. Not only that, but many terpenes have many functions and are thus viewed as “promiscuous” compounds.

    It has been established that terpenes enhance the pharmacokinetics of THC via increasing vasodilation of alveolar capillaries, so facilitating greater absorption of THC by the lungs, and by increasing permeability of the blood-brain barrier.

    Terpenes, like limonene, which is also present in citrous, appear to have agonistic actions on receptors for serotonin (5HT1A), adenosine (AdoR), and dopamine (DAT) (Ref 1, Ref 2, Ref 3). Perhaps this explains why citrus-scented chemovars of cannabis are so highly regarded by those who use it to lift their spirits.

    The “Entourage Effect” postulates that the synergistic effects of the plant’s compounds are greater than the sum of their parts. The role of terpenes in the entourage effect has been hypothesised but has not been experimentally confirmed.

    Do Terpenes Have the Potential to Induce Inebriation?

    No. In and of themselves, terpenes do not have the capacity to induce intoxication or other psychoactive effects.

    Do Terpenes Have Any Negative Effects?

    Natural or synthetic, there is always the chance of unintended consequences when using chemicals. Though terpene side effects aren’t unheard of, they’re not very prevalent either. For those with a heightened sensitivity to terpenes, there may be some negative reactions.

    Extremely high concentrations of some terpenes can have immediate hazardous consequences as skin irritation, allergic responses, nausea, and headaches. These amounts, however, are well beyond what anyone could safely consume from cannabis products.

    Each individual will respond best to a different combination of terpenes. A universally effective product is as elusive as a perfect cannabis strain. In order to determine which terpenes or terpene combinations work best for a certain patient, it is generally necessary to conduct a series of trials with varying concentrations and ratios of these compounds.


    Terpenes are the aromatic plant oils that give different cannabis strains their distinctive aromas. Terpenes have been used for herbal therapy for thousands of years, although there is little clinical data supporting their use.

    The expanding corpus of research on the entourage effect suggests that terpenes might augment the effects of cannabis, which is something to keep in mind when developing solutions for patients. Terpenes are often well tolerated and can be found in full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and terpsolate formulations.

    Many manufacturers now check the terpene concentration of their oil and floral products on a consistent basis. That’s why it’s important to check certificates of analysis (CoAs) to see whether manufacturers are forthcoming about the ingredients they use and the consistency of their products from batch to batch.


    We know you might be curios to find out more information and discuss medicinal cannabis uses, or where to get legal medicinal cannabis products in Australia, or who is authorised to prescribe medicinal cannabis products to you, and we know lots of people are also worried about the use of medicinal cannabis.

    For all these, schedule a consultation session today with our experts at Chronic Therapy to get professional advice about any medicinal cannabis product or medicinal use of the product to maximise your benefits from it.

    Related: Taking Medicinal Marijuana with Blood Thinners

  • Taking Medicinal Marijuana with Blood Thinners
    Medical Cannabis Doctor

    Taking Medicinal Marijuana with Blood Thinners

    Medical cannabis plant is permitted in numerous states in Australia. Patients suffering from a variety of medications conditions that can be adequately treated with medicinal cannabis sativa plant will be relieved to hear this. Concerns have been raised, however, concerning the possible interactions with other drugs that people with specific diseases may need to take.

    A class of these drugs is used to thin the blood. Many doctors avoid recommending medicinal marijuana to patients on blood thinners since it can boost the effectiveness of these drugs. People don’t aware that medical marijuana may be used as a safe and effective alternative to anticoagulant drugs due to its inherent blood-thinning effects.

    Some doctors, because to a lack of education on medical marijuana, warn their patients with a clotting disorder or other heart issues against taking Medicinal Cannabis oils. The medical community has yet to properly recognise medicinal marijuana’s potential advantages.

    The Benefits of Medical Cannabis and Clot Prevention

    To put it simply, blood clots impede normal blood circulation. A build-up of platelets, a kind of blood cell, causes certain conditions.

    Stopping bleeding after an accident or wound is a vital body function, but blood clots may be quite deadly if they develop in the wrong place. Doctors typically give blood thinners to avoid this. Blood thinners have no effect on the blood’s viscosity. They work by preventing the blood from clotting.

    Clot-busting antiplatelet drugs work by reducing the ability of blood’s platelets to stick together and clot. The chemical reaction produced by an anticoagulant increases the time it takes for a clot to form.

    Does Medical Marijuana Reduce Blood Pressure?

    For some, the anticoagulant properties of medical marijuana are worth the risk of becoming high. Insufficient study has been done on this aspect of medicinal marijuana; hence the exact explanation is unknown.

    Phyto-cannabinoids, which may be found in abundance in medicinal marijuana, aid in a wide range of physiological processes, including blood thinning. The processes by which Medicinal Cannabis causes its blood-thinning effects are still poorly understood, however.

    At now, the only research addressing the blood-thinning effects of marijuana was conducted on overweight rats.

    It was determined through this study that cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabinol (CBN) inhibit blood clotting activity, and that the endocannabinoid anandamide has clotting potential in vitro.

    Blood thrombin activity was also shown to be altered by the cannabinoids found in medical cannabis. Blood clots are formed when fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by the enzyme thrombin. This data also reveals that cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, have a high affinity for specific receptors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors or PPARy) in the blood vessels.

    Research investigating the effects of medicinal cannabis on blood platelet and clotting activity cannot proceed until marijuana is either no longer classed as an illegal drug or rescheduled into a lower category.

    Does Medicinal Cannabis Affect Blood Thinners?

    The effects of medical marijuana on blood have not been studied extensively, however there is evidence that using marijuana in conjunction with blood-thinning drugs can have dangerous consequences. The liver is responsible for cleansing the blood of toxins and other harmful compounds and for breaking down (metabolising) medications.

    Medicinal cannabis is broken down in the liver by the same enzymes responsible for breaking down blood thinners. Medical marijuana can modify the effectiveness of statins and blood-thinning drugs. To put it simply, marijuana reduces the efficacy of certain medicines and, in some situations, can cause dangerous drug interactions.

    Will Blood Thinning Medications Interfere with Smoking Marijuana?

    Many people who use blood thinners also frequently use medical cannabis. The risks associated with Medicinal Cannabis use for these people, however, are frequently related to how the drug is used.

    Users who partake in dangerous behaviours, such as smoking, are responsible for the negative outcomes of such behaviours. Medical marijuana patients taking Blood Thinners often prefer edibles and topicals over smoking the drug.

    What Are the Effects of Marijuana on Blood-Thinning Medications?

    It is thought that marijuana’s ability to block the metabolism of blood thinners and displace them from their protein-binding sites contributes to the drug’s increased anticoagulant impact.

    Properties in medical cannabis can counteract the benefits of blood-thinning drugs and therapies. There are two ways in which these consequences manifest: the first is a reduction in the beneficial benefits of therapy and an increase in the undesirable side effects common to many pharmacological medications. Dangers include overdosing, addiction, and toxicity.

    Many people who need blood thinners also have cardiovascular concerns, such as high blood pressure, which makes using medicinal cannabis harmful. Abnormal heart activity, which might increase the risk of stroke, is a well-known risk of using medical cannabis.

    People with cardiac problems are more likely to have negative effects from THC-rich strains of cannabis used for smoking or vaping. Those who consume marijuana in different forms may also be at risk.

    Unfortunately, many people continue to use marijuana with prescription medicines like Warfarin despite warnings about the Marijuanaential for harmful interactions between the two. There is no clear evidence that long-term use of medicinal cannabis causes blood thinning, despite reports that it has anticoagulant action.

    If you have heart problems and are on blood-thinning medication or therapy, talk to your doctor before starting a Medicinal Cannabis regimen. You’ll want to know what other options are available and how starting a new drug regimen could effect your current regimen and general health.

    When integrating medicinal cannabis into treatment, it is essential for patients to do so under medical supervision.

    How to Get the Most Out of Medical Marijuana While Taking Blood Thinners

    In particular, those using blood-thinning or cardiac drugs may experience serious side effects from Medicinal Cannabis use. Quitting smoking is the most effective strategy to lessen this possibility.

    Different strains and preparations of medical marijuana provide patients more options for using the drug safely and sensibly. Some people who use medical marijuana are concerned about the health risks associated with inhaling smoke and have found relief through alternative ways of ingestion, such as edibles, topicals, and tinctures, which are more powerful than smoking medicinal cannabis flower. The effects of marijuana are amplified due to the liver’s role in processing ingested products.

    Medical marijuana smoking when taking warfarin?

    Many people using blood thinners still smoke nicotine and medical cannabis despite the known risks. Reduced blood flow to the organs and the rest of the body is one of the negative effects of smoking.

    Long-term usage also increases the risk of other vascular, pulmonary, and general health problems by making the arteries stiffer and less elastic. If you have abnormal blood clotting activity or heart or vascular health issues, you should not smoke medical cannabis while using a blood thinner.

    Cannabidiol for Blood-Thinning Purposes

    There has to be more research done on medicinal cannabis before it can replace standard blood thinners in medical practise. Blood-thinning medication users who are considering switching to medicinal marijuana should do so only under medical supervision.

    The ideal ratio of THC to CBD in an oil combination is 2 ounces of THC to 1 ounce of CBD. Without first consulting with their doctor, patients shouldn’t use oil or omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Blood-thinning medications may not work as well if you consume these lipids.

    Treatments based on medicinal cannabis are effective for a wide range of diseases and disorders because to the plant’s characteristics, which may affect virtually anywhere in the body. Unfortunately, distrust has grown up over the years due to concealing therapeutic remedies derived from the plant from the general public.

    This is why many people persist in taking synthetic drugs despite their hazardous consequences and numerous drawbacks.

    Which Prescription Drugs Should Not Be Taken Together with Medical Cannabis?

    THC and CBD, two of medicinal cannabis’ primary active ingredients, are known to influence medication metabolism and action. These variations raise the possibility of misuse and addiction problems and make it more challenging for users to avoid dangerous drug combinations.

    Dizziness, disorientation, lethargy, fast or shallow breathing, increased or lowered heart rate, drops and spikes in blood pressure, impairment of motor, cognitive, and judgement skills, aspiration, and psychosis are common symptoms of negative medication and Medicinal Cannabis interactions.

    Patients using the following pharmaceuticals are at increased risk for negative interactions when using cannabinoids.

    • Liver damage, emotional instability, and drug addiction have all been linked to antidepressants and antipsychotics including Zoloft (sertraline), Seroquel, clozapine, valproate, etc.
    • A higher risk of abnormal and excessive bleeding is associated with the use of cardiovascular drugs like Warfarin, statins, etc.
    • Drugs that help people breathe easier, such bronchodilators like theophylline and beta-2 agonists like salbutamol, formoterol, and vilanterol, and anticholinergics like ipratropium, tiotropium, and glycopyrronium, are less effective when used with marijuana.
    • Mild negative effects are common when combining marijuana with anticonvulsants like benzodiazepines. However, the sedative effects of CBD and other drugs, such as blood thinners, are compounded when used together.

    In spite of the risks, medical cannabis can be safely used in conjunction with prescribed medications.

    Your doctor should be aware of your intention to use medical marijuana as well as any other drugs or supplements you are currently taking. Your doctor will go over your health background, explain your treatment options, and address any concerns you may have.

    Your doctor should be consulted before you suddenly stop taking any drugs. To get the benefits of marijuana without harming your general health, your doctor may offer an alternative drug.


    We know you might be curios to find out more information and discuss medicinal cannabis uses, or where to get legal medicinal cannabis products in Australia, or who is authorised to prescribe medicinal cannabis products to you, and we know lots of people are also worried about the use of medicinal cannabis.

    For all these, schedule a consultation session today with our experts at Chronic Therapy to get professional advice about any medicinal cannabis product or medicinal use of the product to maximise your benefits from it.

    Related: Terpenes in Medical Marijuana: An Overview